Pa§ca SP et al, One carbon metabolism disturbances and the C677TMTHFR gene polymorphism in
children with autism spectrum disorders.
Cell Mo/. Med. 2009, 13(10):4229-4238.

One study found that children with autism had high levels of plasma vitamin B6 presupplementation, and this finding was confirmed in a follow-up study (Adams 2006), suggesting a
metabolic imbalance in B6. (See section on High-Dose Vitamin B6 for more info.)
Adams JB, Holloway CJ: Pilot study ofa moderate dose multivitamin/mineralsupplement for children
with autistic spectrum disorder. A/tern Complement Med. 2004, 10(6):1033-9.
Adams JB, George F, Audhya T: Abnormally high plasma levels of vitamin 86 in children with autism not
taking supplements compared to controls not taking supplements. J A/tern Complement Med. 2006,

One study of vitamin D status in Egypt found that young children with autism had lower levels of
vitamin D compared to age-matched controls. However, the Adams et al 2011 study did not find
any difference between vitamin D levels in children with autism in the US and neurotypical children
in the US. Low levels of vitamin Dare a concern for the general population, since vitamin Dis
made by the body only when exposed to direct sunlight, and nowadays people spend more time
inside or shielded from the sun.
Meguid NA, Hashish AF, Anwar M, Sidhom G: Reducedserum levels of25-hydroxy and 1,25-dihydroxy
vitamin Din Egyptian children with autism. J A/tern Complement Med. 2010, 16(6):641-5.

One study in Slovakia found that children with autism had significantly higher levels of vitamin C
and beta-carotene, but normal levels of vitamin A and vitamin E, compared to older teen controls.
This is consistent with the Adams et al 2011 study.
Krajkovicova-Kudlackova Met al Plasma concentration ofselected antioxidants in autistic children and
adolescents. Bratisl Lek Listy2009, 110(4): 247-250.

Many studies have demonstrated that children with autism have substantial oxidative stress,
suggesting either a low level of key antioxidants or an increased need for them. (See section on
oxidative stress.)

Research – Minerals
One large comprehensive study found that children with autism had lower levels of some minerals
(lithium, calcium, and magnesium) compared to neurotypical children of the same age. The
severity of autism was strongly associated with the level of certain vitamins and minerals.
Adams JB et al, Nutritional and Metabolic Status ofChildren with Autism vs. Neurotypical Children, and
the Association with Autism Severity, Nutr. Metab {Lond) 2011 Jun 8:8(1):34.

Another study also found that young US children with autism (and their mothers) had unusually low
levels of lithium compared to neurotypical children and their mothers. Lithium is receiving
increasing recognition as possibly being an essential mineral, as low levels are associated with
psychiatric and immunological disorders.
Adams JB et al, Biol Tr El Res 2006, 110:193-209.

Two large studies of iron status found that young US and Canadian children with autism had
anemia in 8% and 16% of cases, respectively.
LatifA etal, Iron Deficiency in Autism andAspergerSyndrome. Autism 2002, 6:103.
Dosman CF etal, Ferritin as an indicator ofsuspected iron deficiency in children with autism spectrum
disorder: prevalence oflow serum ferritin concentration. Dev Med Child Neurol 2006, 48(12):1008-9